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Landscape lighting color filters

Landscape lighting color filters


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Landscape lighting color filters

Color filters are a type of physical phenomenon produced by selective interference of light in certain materials. The effect comes from a combination of refraction and reflection of the light as it passes through the filter material. The effect has become common in the artistic lighting industry, where creative effects are frequently created by the combination of different colors of light. It is also common to place several color filters in series, forming a colored image or an array of colors. The technique has been used in photography since the late 19th century to alter the colors and hue of a scene. It is especially popular in still photography, where the filter's effect may be more subtle. Color filters are also used in the motion picture industry to change the color of light during filming.

Color filters are usually used to make a scene appear a certain color, such as a sunset color filter for a red sky or a color filter for green foliage in a forest. For example, when the colors are not natural, a particular hue, such as a blue sky, may be rendered. This is called an artistic lighting effect. Natural lighting and studio lighting are often not used to achieve certain colors, except for daylighting, as in a daytime image. The effects on colors in a color filter image can be subtle, or very significant, as desired by the artist. The effect may also be used to create the impression of motion or the impression of an object appearing and disappearing in front of the viewer. It is also used in a variety of other industrial applications.

Introduction

Interference filters are physical phenomena that are created by an impinging light beam of a certain wavelength selectively filtering the wavelengths of the original beam. A typical interference filter is made of alternating layers of different optical materials, and is structured in a manner that makes it opaque to light of certain wavelengths but transparent to others. This is done to enhance the image seen by the observer by eliminating unwanted wavelengths of light.

The term "interference filter" also applies to light field displays that use interference filters to produce color effects similar to those of a normal screen, as opposed to color filters. A typical light field display has a layer of alternating colored and clear (or white) areas and is composed of an array of pixels. When light strikes a clear area, it is refracted and diffracted but passes through the colored areas. These pixels produce the same effect as a color filter, so that the viewer perceives the effect of light coming from different directions. This technology is sometimes called light field displays (LFD), "light-field-based imaging," light field photography, "reconfigurable mirror displays" or "chromatic light field imaging". In the digital domain, the technology is called spatial light modulation, or deformable mirror display.

Diffractive optics

For a light beam of a particular wavelength, the degree of interference or constructive or destructive interference depends on the refractive index of the material. Light of lower wavelengths can undergo greater angular divergence than light of higher wavelengths because the difference between the refractive indices of the materials is smaller. This effect increases for light of a wavelength greater than 1,200 ,nm, and results in what is called diffraction. Some light with a wavelength shorter than about 200 ,nm is also diffracted, due to Abbe's diffraction limit. The angle at which the beam is diffracted away is the diffraction angle θ diff. Its precise value depends on the structure of the grating, the period of the grating, and the refractive index of the material through which the light is propagating.

The angle of the diffracted beam depends on its position within the grating. As the beam propagates away from the edges of the grating, it has more room to move sideways. The higher the refractive index of the grating, the more sideways movement the beam can undergo. For a given grating and wavelength, the diffracted beam also moves in the same direction in which the beam was incident on the grating. Therefore, this configuration is called a positive angle grating. A negative angle grating has a grating structure where the grooves are on the side of the grating facing the beam instead of the grating surface. As the beam is diffracted away, it is less likely to re-collide with the grating.

Hava ızgarası sistemində barmaqlığın optik oxunda hərəkət edən işıq şüaları barmaqlığın səthində tam daxili əks olunur. Havanın sınma əmsalı (1,0 sınma əmsalı) barmaqlıqdan daha böyükdür. Əksər materiallarda bu təsir kiçikdir və bucaq fərqi adətən çox kiçik olur. Bəzi materiallarda bu əhəmiyyətli ola bilər. Məsələn, titan dioksiddən ibarət bir barmaqlıq Bragg əks etdirmə vasitəsi ilə düşən işıq şüasını 90° yönləndirmək üçün nəzərdə tutulmuşdur. (Braq qanunu işığın dövri quruluşun maksimumlarından əks olunduğunu bildirir.) Bunu etməkdə çox səmərəlidir və maksimumda havanın sınma əmsalı 1,5-dir. İşıq şüası titan dioksid barmaqlığından cəmi 4 dərəcə bucaq fərqi ilə əks olunur, lakin havada effektiv refraksiya bucağı 90 dərəcədir.

Bragg reflektorları və barmaqlıqları müntəzəm olaraq fiber optik və telekommunikasiyada istifadə olunur. Optik lifli barmaqlıq dar dalğa uzunluqları üçün çox yüksək əks etdiriciliyə malik olan Bragg reflektorunun nümunəsidir.

İstinadlar

A. A. Zayats, A. V. Barışev və V. M. Şalaev, İnteqrasiya edilmiş optika: fotonik və kvant nöqtələri. Springer, Berlin, 2003, səh. ,13.

xarici linklər

Kateqoriya:Optik komponentlər

Kateqoriya:Bragg reflektorları

Kateqoriya:Fiber optik



Şərhlər:

  1. Raja

    AHA, buna görə də mənə elə gəldi.

  2. Eghan

    Bravo, your sentence brilliantly

  3. Kem

    Prinsipcə, razıyam

  4. Zuzragore

    Mən tamamilə başa düşmürəm, nə demək istəyirsən?



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